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Go tests, multistage docker builds, pipeline


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During the last year I have learned how important it is to build, test and deploy using always the same docker container as well as reducing its size. As I have not found anything online, I want to remember and share it: I am testing my go packages with a multistage docker build inside my pipeline on GitLab.

The odd way of testing go docker containers

Especially when implementing CI best practices, I have seen projects running tests in different ways:

  1. Before building 😨
  2. When building the container 🙄
  3. After building 😅

Being kind: there is no right nor wrong approach Lorenzo, but as the project grows you need to run different kind of tests, not just unit tests. This leads to run some containers together, spinning up dependencies etc etc. Remember that thing called “micro services”?

The lazy inner developer hidden in me, is always trying to run all the tests when building the containers… and the other lazy one instead, decides to add binaries together with the source code, so that this container can be tested during a second task of our pipeline… but no, this is not optimal.

Adding the vendor directory, the source code and all the tests into your container is not what I would suggest to do. The result is a big container, and the risk source code exposure. We can avoid that! 😎

Building binaries and tests

Luckily for me, we can build “binaries” for go packages… I mean, test binaries. It works like this:

go test -c ./package

This will create a new binary file called ./package.test and guess what it does? Just run it and see it yourself… (Spoiler: the binary runs the tests)

I strongly suggest to repeat this command in a script for each of the packages. This will create multiple testing binaries but it will help a lot to ensure granularity over your tests. It is also possible to split the code with unit tests and integration tests by using build tags.

Multistage magic

Well, once you have your tests compiled you can run them in different steps in a docker container. (remember about integration and unit tests?) 🧐 Since we don’t need anymore the source code we will use multistage builds. Let me show you my amazing Docker file:

FROM go:alpine as builder
COPY . .
# build a package tests (maybe do more than one in a script)
RUN go test -c ./package1.test -o /out/tests/package1.test
# build the app
RUN go build -o /out/runme
FROM alpine as release
COPY /out/ /out/ —-from=builder
CMD [“/out/runme”]

We are using multistage builds. It means is that it is building the container in two stages. Briefly this is what is happening:

  • Sets go:alpine as builder container
  • Adds the source code to the local directory
  • Downloads the dependencies
  • Builds the tests binaries
  • Builds the binaries
  • Sets a new container called alpine as release
  • Copies only the binaries from the build containers
  • Set the binary as CMD

As multiple packages under the same repo is apparently a thing, I may suggest to write some helpful scripts, and reduce the lines/commits/layers inside the docker container.

Home Work for the Reader: Check the size of the new docker container and compare it with the previous one…

If your heart is accelerating… it is normal, you might be excited… but get checked just in case, I am not a doctor and you are not a developer. Hopefully it is extreme COD over container sizes and not an heart attack

Ok, now we got it. We have a container! It is much smaller, it doesn’t include unnecessary stuff like source code or dependencies.

Working with a pipeline

Using this in a pipeline is the best example to understand the benefit of this approach. Let’s suppose that we have a dependency like MongoDB, Redis or other components… whatever! How do we run these tests in the pipeline?

I am using GitLab CI/CD Pipeline because it is really useful and easy to explain. This is doable as well with Jenkins or something else 😉 It is just a concept. This is my pipeline scripted as source code in .gitlab-ci.yaml:

image: docker:latest

  - docker:dind

  - build
  - test
  - release

  IMAGE_BASE_NAME: registry.gitlab.com/siderus/example-app

  - docker login -u gitlab-ci-token -p $CI_BUILD_TOKEN registry.gitlab.com

  stage: build
    - docker build --compress --force-rm -t "$IMAGE_BASE_NAME:$CI_BUILD_REF_NAME" .
    - docker push "$IMAGE_BASE_NAME:$CI_BUILD_REF_NAME"

  stage: test
    - docker pull "$IMAGE_BASE_NAME:$CI_BUILD_REF_NAME"
    - docker run -e REDIS_URL="my-test-redis:6379" --rm $IMAGE_BASE_NAME:$CI_BUILD_REF_NAME /out/tests/package1.test


What is happening:

  1. We are setting up the basic image where the service will run all the commands as as well the services to run. (dind but we could add redis too)
  2. We have specified a set of stages
  3. First stage: docker build and push with the commit as a tag
  4. Run tests: docker pull and run tests binary

During the building phase, we are pushing a new docker container to the free gitlab private docker registry. This container has the binary file and the testing binaries. So the Testing stages are just running these binaries. I strongly suggest to write a simple script to add inside the container that will run all the testing binaries.


Let me check: is the Reader still there? are you ok? It was not an heart attack, right? Anyway, I have noticed the following things happening:

  • Smaller container
  • Slightly slower building phase
  • Faster testing stages
  • Faster deployment process
  • You may still need to copy some files to run tests
  • You still need to run tests locally before pushing commits and PR!
  • More scripting is required to improve this with multiple packages

Feel free to leave a comment or share this post if you found it helpful! I am open for feedback!



This article is 5 years old, it may be outdated or not relevant anymore! Comments and reactions might have been lost.